The legality of these efforts has never been seriously challenged under US constitutional or statutory law.
European data protection officials, however, resisted the use of commercial data on the grounds that it invaded the privacy of European travelers under European laws.
Below are four of the many dramatic impacts -- nationwide and in California -- resulting from the events of that one tragic day. Two years later, in March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq and deposed President Saddam Hussein. In August 2017, President Trump announced his intention to boost troop levels in the region in response to deteriorating security conditions.
Although not directly linked to the terrorist attacks, Hussein was suspected of producing weapons of mass destruction (none were ever found).
During the next decade, several domestic focused Islamist terrorist plots were foiled at the planning stage; however, additional attacks were conducted overseas, by operatives of Hezbollah killing US service personnel in 1996 at the Khobar Towers complex in Saudi Arabia, by al Qaeda bombing of US embassies in East Africa in 1998, and the attack on the USS Cole near Yemen in 2000.
The most deadly attack domestically during the 1990s was the Oklahoma City bombing, carried out by Timothy Mc Veigh, an anti-government extremist.
The first refers to how we can better collect information in real time within the context of modern global communication, travel, and finance.
The second focuses on how we can better combine and integrate that information once collected.
For the fundamental lesson was this: a counterterrorism architecture that is founded on criminal justice principles is fundamentally oriented to punishing those who have plotted or carried out attacks.
But with the danger to innocent life posed by modern terrorism, prevention and not punishment becomes the critical driver for counterterrorism. This refashioning focused on three elements of the counterterrorism process: intelligence collection, information integration, and terrorist incapacitation.