The scientific analysis of water samples from 1995 to 2008 indicates that the organic and bacterial contamination is severe in water bodies of India.This is mainly due to discharge of domestic waste water in untreated form, mostly from the urban centres of India.Flooding during monsoons worsens India's water pollution problem, as it washes and moves solid waste and contaminated soils into its rivers and wetlands.
The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates into the soil or evaporates.
The uncollected waste accumulates in the urban areas causing unhygienic conditions and releasing pollutants that leach into surface and groundwater.
Canals, rivers and lakes in India often serve as dumping grounds for sewage, solid and liquid wastes.
These are sources of water pollution, as illustrated in Tamil Nadu (above) and West Bengal (below).
The United States is the largest supplier of treatment equipment and supplies to India, with 40 percent market share of new installation.
At this rate of expansion, and assuming the government of India continues on its path of reform, major investments in sewage treatment plants and electricity infrastructure development, India will nearly triple its water treatment capacity by 2015, and treatment capacity supply will match India's daily sewage water treatment requirements by about 2020. The Ganga rejuvenation efforts by the union government, the Yamuna clean up are some of the government initiated efforts.
From this, with the state of Indian infrastructure in 2005, the available water resource through the rivers is about 1869 billion cubic meters.
Accounting to uneven distribution of rain over the country each year, water resources available for utilization, including ground water, is claimed to be about 1122 billion cubic meters.
Treatment of domestic sewage and subsequent utilization of treated sewage for irrigation can prevent pollution of water bodies, reduce the demand for fresh water in the irrigation sector and become a resource for irrigation.
Since 2005, Indian wastewater treatment plant market has been growing annually at the rate of 10 to 12 percent.