Last month, over 100 papers from Chinese researchers published between 2012 to 2016 in Tumor Biology, a cancer-research journal, were linked to review fabrications. 15990 Issued in May 2010, Revised in February 2012 NBER Program(s): Children, Economics of Education, Labor Studies, Public Economics I investigate the importance of the match between teachers and schools for student achievement.Because teacher wages are essentially unrelated to productivity, this is compelling evidence that workers may seek high-quality matches for reasons other than higher pay.
Despite decades of research and technical assistance efforts by governments, development agencies and international NGOs, arsenic poisoning of rural populations through groundwater persists across large parts of Asia, in Africa and South America.
This briefing looks at the reasons why the arsenic problem persists in many low-income countries and presents practical approaches to inform decision makers interested in creating a national plan to reduce and ultimately eradicate the problem.
“I am confident that we capture most retractions for fake peer review,” said Oransky.
China has the worst performance on peer-review integrity even when compared with the top five countries (see chart below) for scientific publishing in the last five years, using Nature Index, which tracks publications in nearly 70 journals as an indicator of a nation’s high-quality research output.
Peer review by scientists in the same field as someone trying to publish research is supposed to help journals and their readers make sense of how credible and important the work is.
Problems with peer review taint that process, and can extend the gamut from reviews that are carried out by someone affiliated with the researcher to entirely made-up reviews.
The index’s data covers a 12-month rolling window, with the latest numbers covering February 2016 through January 2017.
Part of the problem is that Chinese researchers, who have been publishing in ever greater numbers—last year Nature Index showed China published 9,721 research articles, up from 6,587 in 2012—often rely on third-party companies to help translate, format and submit their work to journals, and sometimes this outsourcing results in efforts to game the system.
To find out how catchment attributes, such as land use, hydrologic soil groups, and lithology, can affect water quality variables (Ca(2 ), Mg(2 ), Na( ), Cl(-), HCO 3 (-) , p H, TDS, EC, SAR), a spatio-statistical approach was applied to 23 catchments in southern basins of the Caspian Sea.
All input data layers (digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology) were prepared using geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis.