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Its adoption as an educational goal has been recommended on the basis of respect for students’ autonomy and preparing students for success in life and for democratic citizenship.“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think critically when appropriate.
Curtis Chu, National Chiayi University, Taiwan James Dunn, Tokai University, Japan Todd Hooper, Setsunan University, Japan Zeinab Shekarabi, Hiroshima University, Japan Adam Gyenes, Ryutsu Keizai University, Japan Andrew Lawson, Lakeland University, Japan Anna Husson Isozaki, Juntendo University, Japan Carey Finn, University of South Africa, South Africa Ching-Fen Wu, National Chiayi University, Taiwan Ching-Chung Hsu, National Chiayi University, Taiwan Eric Feng-Jihu Lee, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan Ferg Hann, Tokai University, Japan Joshi R.
Malatesha, Texas A&M University, United States Li-Fen Wang, National Chiayi University, Taiwan Paul Mathieson, Nara Medical University, Japan Yu-Fei Liu, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan Yuhtsuen Tzeng, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan We hope you find the articles both stimulating and enjoyable.
Before considering the definition of critical thinking, it will be helpful to have in mind some examples of critical thinking, as well as some examples of kinds of thinking that would apparently not count as critical thinking.
Dewey (1910: 68–71; 1933: 91–94) takes as paradigms of reflective thinking three class papers of students in which they describe their thinking.
Glaser (1941) showed experimentally that it was possible to improve the critical thinking of high school students.
Bloom’s influential taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives (Bloom et al. Ennis (1962) proposed 12 aspects of critical thinking as a basis for research on the teaching and evaluation of critical thinking ability.His lengthy quotations of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill indicate that he was not the first person to propose development of a scientific attitude of mind as an educational goal.In the 1930s, many of the schools that participated in the Eight-Year Study of the Progressive Education Association (Aikin 1942) adopted critical thinking as an educational goal, for whose achievement the study’s Evaluation Staff developed tests (Smith, Tyler, & Evaluation Staff 1942).Since 1980, an annual international conference in California on critical thinking and educational reform has attracted tens of thousands of educators from all levels of education and from many parts of the world.Also since 1980, the state university system in California has required all undergraduate students to take a critical thinking course.We will be announcing submission guidelines in the near future, as well as a submission deadline for next year’s Issue.Critical thinking is a widely accepted educational goal.The examples range from the everyday to the scientific.: “The other day, when I was down town on 16th Street, a clock caught my eye. This suggested that I had an engagement at 124th Street, at one o'clock. If not, I might lose more than twenty minutes in looking for one.active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it, and the further conclusions to which it tends.(Dewey 1910: 6; 1933: 9) and identified a habit of such consideration with a scientific attitude of mind.