Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, This section should include a summary of, or be summarized in, History of open access.
Delayed open-access journals publish articles initially as subscription-only, then release them as free to read (but not to reuse, adapt and share, so not open access), typically after an embargo period (varying from months to years). Since they do not charge either readers or authors, such publishers often require funding from external sources such as academic institutions, learned societies, philanthropists or government grants.
Libre open access covers the kinds of open access defined in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.
The emergence of open science or open research has brought to light a number of controversial and hotly-debated topics.
Scholarly publishing invokes various positions and passions.