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Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service.Many different avenues of research employ the use of h ES cells.
Introduction: Stem cells, under the right conditions, have the ability to differentiate into many specialised cell types.
They can give rise to cardiomyocytes, nerve cells, adipocytes and osteocytes.
Applying specific growth factors to h ES cells allows the generation of cardiomyocytes for use in cell replacement therapies (Winkler et al., 2004).
Due to growing transplant lists there is an increased need to develop new methods to treat people with heart failure and cardiomyopathies (Salmons, 1999).
However, there is a risk that the derivation and culture of h ES cells could produce epigenetic alterations, often leaving genomic regions susceptible to DNA methylation, which is known to be involved in tumour progression (Pannetier and Feil, 2007).
Clinical Potential of Human Embryonic Stem Cells: The potential of h ES cells to differentiate into all three germ layers and indefinitely replicate has raised hope that these cells could be a renewable source for cell transplantation in severe degenerative diseases (Hoffman and Carpenter, 2005).
They should also be genetically and epigenetically normal (Skottman et al., 2006).
HES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of preimplantation embryos.
The human embryonic stem (h ES) cell is characterised as the most plastic stem cell, capable of differentiating into any cell type. This means they are able to differentiate into all the germ layers; ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
This would achieve the true transdifferentiation that adult stem cells cannot.