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Its origins can be traced to the activity of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (Krause, 2007:2).
However, the use of the term ‘human security’ was first defined in the 1994 United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) Human Development Report.
Statistically, citizens of states with weak institutions are more affected by violent threats.
Cathedral Robert Carver Essay - Essay On Knowledge Of Security And Human Rights Issues
Theoretically, the state is still the system in which representativeness and legitimacy take place, also thanks to its flexibility and capability to adapt to different contexts.While its responsibility as an international actor has been strongly underlined, its role as a domestic security provider has been defined in a negative way: when the state fails to provide security to its citizens, the international community will intervene in its place.The third section clarifies why the national level should be prioritised.This document gives a broad definition of human security, describing it as the condition of safety from seven categories of threats, divided into: economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, personal security, community security and political security, and composed of the two elements of ‘freedom from fear and freedom from want’ (UNDP, 19-25).The definition stems from the idea that ‘the concept of security has for too long been interpreted narrowly’, for ‘it has been related more to nation-states than to people’ (UNDP, 19).This essay adopts this narrow definition of human security for analytical purposes, but it proposes to move beyond the ‘narrow-broad approach’ debate and to focus on the identity of the potential security providers instead.The central question – who should provide security to individuals in this new theoretical framework – has been often neglected by advocates of the concept.This oversight has relegated the notion of human security to the moral and legal justification of the use of humanitarian intervention in some of the most troubled areas in the world.The state is often regarded in the human security perspective as just one of the actors, or even part of the problem itself.In order to make a state strong enough to guarantee security to its citizens, its legitimacy through democratic, but flexible, means is an important precondition.The claim of this essay is that the idea of ‘state’ or ‘national’ security is too often misinterpreted as solely the defence of states’ borders from external threats.