The adoption of these principals parallels themselves with the increasing reliance on a quantitative understanding of the world.
In the ‘second wave’ of critical thinking, as defined by Kerry S. 1), many authors moved away from the logocentric mode of critical thinking that the ‘first wave’ privileged, especially in institutions of higher learning.
He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal (and, to a lesser extent, formal) logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.
This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon".
It requires the development, over time, of intellectual traits and dispositions.
And it requires understanding the obstacles to critical thought (that result primarily from egocentric and sociocentric thought).
He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.