Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed.Many questions were buzzing around in my head the first time I heard the sentence “make sure to include a counterargument in your paper” in one of my college classes.In this case, the refutation becomes a large part of the proof . If indeed very strong objections have obtained much currency, or have been just stated by an opponent, so that what is asserted is likely to be regarded as paradoxical, it may be advisable to begin with a Refutation." -Richard Whately, "There will be those who say ' Go slow.
Individuals see these positive aspects as more important than the ongoing negative effects because they use these resources in their everyday life.
First, the author makes it clear in the thesis that the paper will be focusing on the reasons that dams are creating a negative effect.
"Refutation is the part of an essay that disproves the opposing arguments.
It is always necessary in a persuasive paper to refute or answer those arguments.
Despite these positive elements, however, there are also many bad elements related to dams.
Dams have a negative global impact because they eat up valuable land resources, ruin wildlife habitats, effects endangered species, and create damaging greenhouse gases.Also, counterarguments are not often seen in the middle of academic papers because they often do not make sense placed in the middle of all of your main points.The most common places for a counterargument are in the introduction, the paragraph after your introduction, or the paragraph after all of your main points.The arrangement will differ according to the particular subject and the number and strength of the opposing arguments. You cannot refute the opposite statements without establishing your own; nor can you, on the other hand, establish your own statements without refuting the opposite; their union is demanded by their nature, their object, and their mode of treatment.If the opposing arguments are strong and widely held, they should be answered at the beginning. At other times when the opposing arguments are weak, the refutation will play only a minor part in the overall proof." -Winifred Bryan Horner, "[T]he statement of the case . The whole speech is, in most cases, brought to a conclusion by some amplification of the different points, or by exciting or mollifying the judges; and every aid must be gathered from the preceding, but more especially from the concluding parts of the address, to act as powerfully as possible upon their minds, and make them zealous converts to your cause." -Cicero, "Refutation of Objections should generally be placed in the midst of the Argument; but nearer the beginning than the end.In the refutation, you refute those arguments by proving the opposing basic proposition untrue or showing the reasons to be invalid...In general, there is a question about whether the refutation should come before or after the proof. Then must be conjointly built up the great bulwarks of your cause, by fortifying your own position, and weakening that of your opponent; for there is only one effectual method of vindicating your own cause, and that includes both the confirmation and refutation.This will show that you aren’t one-sided and that you are open to other ideas, which will allow the reader to trust you.See example below (adapted from Around the world, there are hundreds of dams of different sizes. Dams have a negative global impact because they eat up valuable land resources, ruin wildlife habitats, effects endangered species, and create damaging greenhouse gases.First, the author effectively conveys the counterargument, “dams are used for irrigation, flood defenses, water supply, and hydroelectric power”, then he states his main argument that will be discussed throughout the paper, which is the “bad elements related to dams”.After your introduction Placing your counterargument in the paragraph after your introduction is beneficial to the reader because you are including the anticipated reaction from the audience that you will work against.