Translation proceeds in three phases: The three phases of translation initiation polymerase binds to the DNA strand and moves along until the small ribosomal subunit binds to the DNA.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. In translation, messenger RNA (m RNA) is decoded in the ribosome decoding center to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide.
The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell.
With respect to the m RNA, the three sites are oriented 5’ to 3’ E-P-A, because ribosomes move toward the 3' end of m RNA.
The A-site binds the incoming t RNA with the complementary codon on the m RNA.
When an aminoacyl-t RNA initially binds to its corresponding codon on the m RNA, it is in the A site.
Then, a peptide bond forms between the amino acid of the t RNA in the A site and the amino acid of the charged t RNA in the P site.
where the medium and small subunits of the ribosome bind to the t RNA.
In eukaryotes, translation occurs in the cytosol or across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called co-translational translocation.
A number of antibiotics act by inhibiting translation.
These include clindamycin, anisomycin, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, and puromycin.